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White vinegar

Ingredients, uses, health benefits, and dangers

Inside and outside the kitchen, white vinegar has been a mainstay in households worldwide for thousands of years. This article discusses some of the white vinegar's most popular uses, benefits, and potential dangers.

This article is based on scientific evidence, written by experts, and fact-checked by experts.
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White vinegar: Ingredients, uses and benefits
Last updated on June 4, 2023, and last reviewed by an expert on September 16, 2022.

White vinegar, sometimes called distilled or spirit vinegar, has been a mainstay in households worldwide for thousands of years. It’s easy to understand why.

White vinegar: Ingredients, uses and benefits

This versatile liquid presents a treasure trove of uses for cleaning, gardening, and cooking. It even has medicinal applications, too.

This article discusses some of the most popular applications for white vinegar and the safest, most effective ways to use it in your home.

In this article

What is white vinegar, and how is it made?

Standard white vinegar is a clear solution generally containing 4–7% acetic acid and 93–96% water.

Some types of white vinegar can contain up to 20% acetic acid, but these are strictly for agricultural or cleaning purposes and are not for human consumption.

Historically, white vinegar has been produced from fermented foods such as sugar beets, potatoes, molasses, or whey milk. Usually, the specific recipe depended on which food item was most readily available in a particular region.

Today, most white vinegar is made from grain alcohol (ethanol) fermentation. This kind of alcohol doesn’t naturally contain many nutrients, so other ingredients, such as yeast or phosphates, may be added to kickstart the bacterial fermentation process.

Summary: White vinegar is a solution typically consisting of 4–7% acetic acid and 93–96% water, though types with higher acetic acid content are available for agricultural or cleaning purposes. It’s most commonly made via the fermentation of grain alcohol.

Culinary uses of white vinegar

White vinegar’s many possible culinary applications make it an easy sell as a kitchen staple.

It has a more substantial and somewhat harsher flavor than other types of drinkable vinegar, so you probably wouldn’t want to drink it by itself. However, it can be a very practical ingredient to have on hand as part of a recipe.

Some of the most popular uses for white vinegar in the kitchen are:

Summary: White vinegar’s culinary applications include pickling, baking, marinades, and cheesemaking. The flavor is strong, so start with small amounts if you’re using it for the first time.

Health benefits of white vinegar

White vinegar may also yield positive health effects beyond adding flavor to your favorite recipes.

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Vinegar has been used medicinally for thousands of years. Most modern research on its health benefits focuses on the acetic acid component of vinegar.

Because many types of vinegar contain acetic acid, white vinegar’s potential health benefits are not necessarily exclusive.

Some of the possible health benefits of vinegar include:

Summary: White vinegar may have significant health benefits due to its acetic acid content, including blood sugar control, weight management, reduced cholesterol, and antimicrobial properties.

Household uses of white vinegar

White vinegar has a variety of practical household applications, none of which have to do with food.

Suggested read: 6 health benefits of apple cider vinegar

Because white vinegar has antimicrobial properties, it’s a valuable disinfectant and cleaner for many surfaces and appliances.

What’s more, it’s significantly cheaper than other commercially available household cleaning agents.

Items easily cleaned with white vinegar include:

White vinegar also has gardening applications. It may be used for killing weeds and can help cut flowers stay fresh longer.

When used for home cleaning projects, a 50/50 ratio of vinegar to water is best. For weed removal, use full-strength vinegar.

Summary: White vinegar can be an effective cleaning tool for multiple household surfaces. It can also control weeds in your garden or help cut flowers stay fresh.

Dangers of white vinegar

Although white vinegar is generally safe, too much of a good thing could prove harmful.

Consumption of too much vinegar may exacerbate symptoms of inflammatory conditions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as heartburn or indigestion.

Excessive consumption of acidic foods such as vinegar can contribute to the degradation of tooth enamel. Some research indicates that white vinegar may be more damaging to your teeth than other types of vinegar.

Additionally, some research suggests potential adverse effects when certain blood sugar and heart medications are supplemented with vinegar. These may include low blood sugar or low potassium levels.

Always consult your doctor before drastically changing your diet or supplement regimen.


White vinegar typically consists of 4–7% acetic acid and 93–96% water.

It can be used for cooking, baking, cleaning, and weed control and may aid weight loss and lower blood sugar and cholesterol.

Consumption is safe in moderation but could be dangerous in excess amounts or alongside certain medications.

Suggested read: 28 surprising uses for apple cider vinegar

If you keep a bottle of white vinegar in your pantry, it’ll come in handy in more ways than one.

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