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Vitex agnus-castus

Benefits, side effects, and myths of chasteberry

Vitex (chasteberry) is a popular herbal remedy, but science may not support all of its benefits. Here are the science-backed benefits — as well as some myths — associated with Vitex agnus-castus.

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Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry): Benefits, side effects, and myths
Last updated on October 10, 2023, and last reviewed by an expert on May 31, 2023.

Researchers have found that Vitex agnus-castus, or chasteberry, may enhance fertility, reduce symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and menopause, and repel certain insects, like mosquitos.

Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry): Benefits, side effects, and myths

Vitex agnus-castus is a popular herbal supplement used to treat various health problems.

It’s most commonly used to treat:

It’s also touted as protection against insect bites and certain types of cancer and is claimed to offer a variety of other health effects. However, not all benefits are backed by science.

Here are the science-backed benefits — as well as some myths — associated with Vitex agnus-castus.

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What is Vitex Agnus-Castus?

Vitex, the name of the largest genus in the Verbenaceae plant family, includes 250 species worldwide.

Vitex agnus-castus is the most common vitex used medicinally.

The Vitex agnus-castus fruit, also known as chasteberry or monk’s pepper, is about the size of a peppercorn. It’s produced by the chaste tree, which acquired its name because its fruit was likely used to decrease men’s libido during the Middle Ages.

This fruit — as well as other parts of the plant — are typically used as an herbal remedy to treat a variety of ailments.

For instance, Vitex agnus-castus is used to treat:

It’s been used in this way since ancient Greece.

Turkish medicine is also used as a digestive, antifungal, and anti-anxiety aid.

Summary: Vitex agnus-castus is a plant frequently harvested as an herbal remedy for various ailments. Its most popular use is to relieve PMS, menopause symptoms, and infertility issues.

Vitex agnus-castus improves conditions affecting women’s reproductive systems

Vitex agnus-castus is particularly known for its ability to improve conditions affecting a woman’s reproductive system.

Vitex agnus-castus eases symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

One of the most popular and well-researched attributes of Vitex agnus-castus is its ability to reduce symptoms of PMS.

These include:

Researchers believe that vitex works by decreasing levels of the hormone prolactin. This helps rebalance other hormones, including estrogen and progesterone — thus reducing PMS symptoms.

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In one study, women with PMS took Vitex agnus-castus during three consecutive menstrual cycles. In total, 93 percent of those given vitex reported a decrease in PMS symptoms, including:

However, the study didn’t include a control group, and placebo effects can’t be ruled out.

In two smaller studies, women with PMS were given 20 mg of Vitex agnus-castus per day or a placebo for three menstrual cycles.

Twice as many women in the vitex group reported decreased symptoms, including irritability, mood swings, headaches, and breast fullness, compared to those given the placebo.

Vitex agnus-castus also appears to help reduce cyclic mastalgia, a type of breast pain linked to menstruation. Research suggests it may be as effective as common drug treatment — but with fewer side effects.

However, two recent reviews report that although vitex appears helpful in reducing PMS symptoms, its benefits may be overestimated.

Better-designed studies may be needed before strong conclusions can be made.

Vitex agnus-castus may reduce menopause symptoms

The hormone-balancing effects of Vitex agnus-castus may also help relieve symptoms of menopause.

In one study, vitex oils were given to 23 women in menopause. Women reported improved menopause symptoms, including better mood and sleep. Some even regained their period.

In a follow-up study, 52 additional pre- and postmenopausal women were given a vitex cream. Of the study participants, 33 percent experienced major improvements, and another 36 percent reported moderate improvements in symptoms, including night sweats and hot flashes.

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However, not all studies have observed benefits. One recent and larger double-blind, randomized, controlled trial — the gold standard in research — gave women a placebo or a daily tablet containing a combination of vitex and St. John’s wort.

After 16 weeks, the vitex supplement was no more effective than the placebo at reducing hot flashes, depression, or other menopausal symptoms.

Remember that in many studies reporting benefits, women were provided with supplements that mixed Vitex agnus-castus with other herbs. Therefore, it’s difficult to isolate the effects of vitex alone.

Vitex agnus-castus may enhance fertility

Vitex may improve female fertility due to its possible effect on prolactin levels.

This may be especially true in women with luteal phase defect, or a shortened second half of the menstrual cycle. This disorder is linked to abnormally high prolactin levels and makes it difficult for women to become pregnant.

In one study, 40 women with abnormally high prolactin levels were given either 40 mg of Vitex agnus-castus or a pharmaceutical drug. Vitex was as effective as the drug in reducing prolactin levels.

In another study in 52 women with luteal phase defect, 20 mg of vitex resulted in lower prolactin levels and prolonged menstrual phases, while participants given a placebo saw no benefits.

Yet another study gave 93 women — who had unsuccessfully tried to become pregnant over the last 6–36 months — a Vitex agnus-castus supplement or a placebo.

After three months, women in the vitex group experienced an improved hormone balance — and 26 percent became pregnant. In comparison, only 10 percent of those in the placebo group became pregnant.

Remember that the supplement held a mix of other ingredients, making it difficult to isolate the effects of vitex.

Irregular periods can also hamper women in planning a pregnancy. Three additional studies report that vitex is more effective than a placebo in improving menstrual cycles in women with irregular periods.

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Summary: Vitex agnus-castus may reduce symptoms of PMS and menopause, though study results are mixed. It may also enhance fertility by decreasing prolactin hormone levels and stabilizing menstrual periods.

Vitex agnus-castus helps prevent insect bites

Vitex may also help keep a variety of insects at bay.

In one study, an extract from vitex seeds helped repel mosquitoes, flies, ticks, and fleas for about six hours.

Another study revealed that a spray containing vitex and other plant extracts protected against head lice for at least seven hours.

Research further shows that vitex may kill lice larva and impede adult lice reproduction.

Summary: Vitex agnus-castus may offer some protection against insects, particularly mosquitoes, flies, ticks, fleas, and head lice.

Other potential benefits of Vitex agnus-castus

Vitex may also offer a range of additional benefits, including:

That said, research supporting these benefits is limited. More studies are needed before strong conclusions can be drawn.

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Summary: Vitex may offer multiple other benefits, but the evidence is weak. More research is needed before any claims can be made.

Common myths of Vitex agnus-castus

Vitex has been traditionally used to treat a wide variety of ailments. However, many of its uses are currently unsupported by scientific evidence.

The most popular unsubstantiated uses include:

Summary: While Vitex agnus-castus is an alternative remedy to treat various symptoms, many purported benefits are not backed by research.

Potential side effects of Vitex agnus-castus

Vitex agnus-castus is typically considered safe.

Researchers report that 30–40 mg of dried fruit extracts, 3–6 grams of dried herb, or 1 gram of dried fruit daily appear safe.

Reported side effects tend to be minor and include:

However, pregnant and nursing women should avoid vitex, as its effects on babies haven’t been well-studied.

Researchers also believe that vitex may interact with the following:

Therefore, you may want to discuss vitex with your doctor before taking it.

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Summary: Vitex agnus-castus has mild and reversible side effects and is considered safe for most people. However, pregnant or nursing women and individuals using certain types of medications may want to abstain.

Summary

Vitex agnus-castus, or chasteberry, may boost fertility and reduce symptoms of PMS and menopause. It may also repel certain insects.

Most other uses are currently unsupported by science.

It may cause stomach discomfort and other mild side effects, but it’s safe for most people.

If you’d like to give Vitex agnus-castus a try, it’s best to discuss its use with your doctor first — especially if you’re:

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