Meditation is the habitual process of training your mind to focus and redirect your thoughts.
The popularity of meditation is increasing as more people discover its many health benefits.
You can use it to increase awareness of yourself and your surroundings. Many think of it as a way to reduce stress and develop concentration.
People also use the practice to develop other beneficial habits and feelings, such as a positive mood and outlook, self-discipline, healthy sleep patterns and even increased pain tolerance.
This article reviews 12 health benefits of meditation.
1. Meditation reduces stress
Stress reduction is one of the most common reasons people try meditation.
One review concluded that meditation lives up to its reputation for stress reduction.
Normally, mental and physical stress cause increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. This produces many harmful effects of stress, such as releasing inflammatory chemicals called cytokines.
These effects can disrupt sleep, promote depression and anxiety, increase blood pressure, and contribute to fatigue and cloudy thinking.
In an 8-week study, a meditation style called “mindfulness meditation” reduced the inflammation response caused by stress.
Furthermore, research has shown that meditation may also improve symptoms of stress-related conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and fibromyalgia.
Summary: Many styles of meditation can help reduce stress. Meditation can likewise reduce symptoms in people with stress-triggered medical conditions.
2. Meditation controls anxiety
Meditation can reduce stress levels, which translates to less anxiety.
A meta-analysis including nearly 1,300 adults found that meditation may decrease anxiety. Notably, this effect was strongest in those with the highest anxiety levels.
Also, one study found that eight weeks of mindfulness meditation helped reduce anxiety symptoms in people with generalized anxiety disorder, increasing positive self-statements and improving stress reactivity and coping.
Another study in 47 people with chronic pain found that completing an 8-week meditation program led to noticeable improvements in depression, anxiety, and pain over one year.
Moreover, some research suggests that various mindfulness and meditation exercises may reduce anxiety.
For example, yoga has been shown to help people reduce anxiety. This is likely due to the benefits of both meditative practice and physical activity.
Meditation may also help control job-related anxiety. One study found that employees who used a mindfulness meditation app for eight weeks experienced improved well-being and decreased distress and job strain compared with those in a control group.
Summary: Habitual meditation can help reduce anxiety and improve stress reactivity and coping skills.
3. Meditation promotes emotional health
Some forms of meditation can lead to improved self-image and a more positive outlook on life.
For example, one review of treatments given to more than 3,500 adults found that mindfulness meditation improved symptoms of depression.
Similarly, a review of 18 studies showed that people receiving meditation therapies experienced reduced symptoms of depression compared with those in a control group.
Another study found that people who completed a meditation exercise experienced fewer negative thoughts in response to viewing negative images than those in a control group.
Furthermore, inflammatory chemicals called cytokines, released in response to stress, can affect mood, leading to depression. A review of several studies suggests meditation may also reduce depression by decreasing levels of these inflammatory chemicals.
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Summary: Some forms of meditation can improve depression and reduce negative thoughts. It may also decrease levels of inflammatory cytokines, which could contribute to depression.
4. Meditation enhances self-awareness
Some forms of meditation may help you develop a stronger understanding of yourself, helping you grow into your best self.
For example, self-inquiry meditation aims to help you better understand yourself and how you relate to those around you.
Other forms teach you to recognize thoughts that may be harmful or self-defeating. As you gain greater awareness of your thought habits, you can steer them toward more constructive patterns.
One review of 27 studies showed that practicing tai chi may be associated with improved self-efficacy, a term used to describe a person’s belief in their capacity or ability to overcome challenges.
In another study, 153 adults who used a mindfulness meditation app for two weeks experienced reduced feelings of loneliness and increased social contact compared with those in a control group.
Additionally, experience in meditation may cultivate more creative problem-solving skills.
Summary: Self-inquiry and related styles of meditation can help you “know yourself.” This can be a starting point for making other positive changes.
5. Meditation lengthens the attention span
Focused attention meditation is like weight lifting for your attention span. It helps increase the strength and endurance of your attention.
For example, one study found that people who listened to a meditation tape experienced improved attention and accuracy while completing a task compared with those in a control group.
A similar study showed that people who regularly practiced meditation performed better on a visual task and had a greater attention span than those without meditation experience.
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Moreover, one review concluded that meditation might even reverse patterns in the brain that contribute to mind-wandering, worrying, and poor attention.
Even meditating for a short period each day may benefit you. One study found that after eight weeks, meditating for 13 minutes daily enhanced attention and memory.
Summary: Several types of meditation may build your ability to redirect and maintain attention.
6. Meditation may reduce age-related memory loss
Improvements in attention and clarity of thinking may help keep your mind young.
Kirtan Kriya is a method of meditation that combines a mantra or chant with the repetitive motion of the fingers to focus your thoughts. Studies in people with age-related memory loss have shown it improves performance on neuropsychological tests.
Furthermore, a review found preliminary evidence that multiple meditation styles can increase attention, memory, and mental quickness in older volunteers.
In addition to fighting normal age-related memory loss, meditation can at least partially improve memory in patients with dementia. It can likewise help control stress and improve coping in those caring for family members with dementia.
Summary: The improved focus you can gain through regular meditation may boost your memory and mental clarity. These benefits can help fight age-related memory loss and dementia.
7. Meditation can generate kindness
Some types of meditation may particularly increase positive feelings and actions toward yourself and others.
Metta, also known as loving-kindness meditation, begins with developing kind thoughts and feelings toward yourself.
Through practice, people learn to extend this kindness and forgiveness externally, first to friends, then acquaintances, and ultimately enemies.
A meta-analysis of 22 studies on this form of meditation demonstrated its ability to increase peoples’ compassion toward themselves and others.
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One study of 100 adults randomly assigned to a program that included loving-kindness meditation found that these benefits were dose-dependent.
In other words, the more time people spend in weekly metta meditation practice, the more positive feelings they experience.
Another study of 50 college students showed that practicing metta meditation three times per week improved positive emotions, interpersonal interactions, and understanding of others after four weeks.
These benefits also appear to accumulate over time with loving-kindness meditation.
Summary: Metta, or loving-kindness meditation, is developing positive feelings toward yourself and others. Metta increases positivity, empathy, and compassionate behavior toward others.
8. Meditation may help fight addictions
The mental discipline you can develop through meditation may help you break dependencies by increasing your self-control and awareness of triggers for addictive behaviors.
Research has shown that meditation may help people learn to redirect their attention, manage their emotions and impulses, and increase their understanding of the causes behind them.
One study of 60 people receiving treatment for alcohol use disorder found that practicing transcendental meditation was associated with lower stress levels, psychological distress, alcohol cravings, and alcohol use after three months.
Meditation may also help you control food cravings. A review of 14 studies found mindfulness meditation helped participants reduce emotional and binge eating.
Summary: Meditation develops mental awareness and can help you manage triggers for unwanted impulses. This can help you recover from addiction, manage unhealthy eating, and redirect other unwanted habits.
9. Meditation improves sleep
Nearly half of the population will struggle with insomnia at some point.
One study compared mindfulness-based meditation programs and found that people who meditated slept longer and had improved insomnia severity compared with those with an unmedicated control condition.
Becoming skilled in meditation may help you control or redirect the racing or runaway thoughts that often lead to insomnia.
Additionally, it can help relax your body, releasing tension and placing you in a peaceful state where you’re more likely to fall asleep.
Summary: Various meditation techniques can help you relax and control runaway thoughts that interfere with sleep. This can shorten the time to fall asleep and increase sleep quality.
10. Meditation helps control pain
Your perception of pain is connected to your state of mind, and it can be elevated in stressful conditions.
Some research suggests that incorporating meditation into your routine could be beneficial for controlling pain.
For example, one review of 38 studies concluded that mindfulness meditation could reduce pain, improve quality of life, and decrease symptoms of depression in people with chronic pain.
A large meta-analysis of studies enrolling nearly 3,500 participants concluded that meditation was associated with decreased pain.
Meditators and non-meditators experienced the same causes of pain, but meditators showed a greater ability to cope with pain and even experienced a reduced sensation of pain.
Summary: Meditation can diminish the perception of pain in the brain. This may help treat chronic pain when used to supplement medical care or physical therapy.
11. Meditation can decrease blood pressure
Meditation can also improve physical health by reducing strain on the heart.
Over time, high blood pressure makes the heart work harder to pump blood, leading to poor heart function.
High blood pressure also contributes to atherosclerosis, or a narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to heart attack and stroke.
A meta-analysis of 12 studies enrolling nearly 1000 participants found that meditation helped reduce blood pressure. This was more effective among older volunteers and those with higher blood pressure before the study.
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One review concluded that several types of meditation produced similar improvements in blood pressure.
In part, meditation appears to control blood pressure by relaxing the nerve signals that coordinate heart function, blood vessel tension, and the “fight-or-flight” response that increases alertness in stressful situations.
Summary: Blood pressure decreases during meditation and over time in individuals who meditate regularly. This can reduce strain on the heart and arteries, helping prevent heart disease.
12. Meditation is accessible anywhere
People practice many different forms of meditation, most of which don’t require specialized equipment or space. You can practice with just a few minutes daily.
If you want to start meditating, try choosing a form of meditation based on what you want to get out of it.
There are two major styles of meditation:
- Focused attention meditation. This style concentrates on a single object, thought, sound, or visualization. It emphasizes ridding your mind of distractions. Meditation may focus on breathing, a mantra, or calming sound.
- Open-monitoring meditation. This style encourages broadened awareness of all aspects of your environment, train of thought, and sense of self. It may include becoming aware of suppressed thoughts, feelings, or impulses.
To find out which styles you like best, check out the various free, guided meditation exercises offered by the University of California Los Angeles. It’s an excellent way to try different styles and find one that suits you.
Consider participating in a class if your regular work and home environments do not allow for consistent, quiet alone time. This can also improve your chances of success by providing a supportive community.
Alternatively, consider setting your alarm a few minutes early to take advantage of quiet time in the morning. This may help you develop a consistent habit and allow you to start the day positively.
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Summary: If you’re interested in incorporating meditation into your routine, try a few different styles and consider guided exercises to get started with one that suits you.
Meditation is something everyone can do to improve their mental and emotional health.
You can do it anywhere without special equipment or memberships.
Alternatively, meditation courses and support groups are widely available.
There’s a great variety of styles, each with different strengths and benefits.
Trying out a style of meditation suited to your goals is a great way to improve your quality of life, even if you only have a few minutes to do it daily.