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Body recomposition

How to lose fat and gain muscle at the same time

Rather than focusing on lower numbers on the scale, body recomposition emphasizes losing fat while gaining muscle. This article tells you everything you need to know about body recomposition.

This article is based on scientific evidence, written by experts, and fact-checked by experts.
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Body recomposition: Lose fat and gain muscle at the same time
Last updated on October 26, 2023, and last reviewed by an expert on January 30, 2023.

Increasing your protein intake and incorporating strength training into your routine can help you lose body fat and increase muscle mass. It may also boost your metabolism and help protect against some chronic conditions.

Body recomposition: Lose fat and gain muscle at the same time

Most people trying to lose weight want a trim yet toned body.

Oftentimes, traditional weight loss programs focus on cutting body fat and hitting lower numbers on the scale rather than gaining muscle.

What is your main goal?

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Body recomposition is an approach to weight loss that emphasizes the importance of losing fat and gaining muscle simultaneously.

Aside from trimming fat, using body recomposition techniques may help you increase strength and boost the number of calories you burn throughout the day.

This article defines body recomposition, discusses its health benefits, and how to start a recomposition regimen.

In this article

What is body recomposition?

Body composition refers to the amount of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) your body contains.

Analyzing body composition gives a better understanding of health than other screening methods that only factor in weight and height, such as body mass index (BMI).

That’s because your body fat percentage in relation to your muscle mass better reflects your overall well-being than just weight or BMI.

Therefore, body recomposition focuses on body composition rather than weight.

Unlike a standard diet, body recomposition is a lifestyle in which fitness and nutrition techniques lead to beneficial changes in your body’s fat-to-muscle ratio.

Recomposition means “to form something again or in a different way,” hence the term “body recomposition.”

Though athletes and weightlifters have used body recomposition for quite some time, it has only recently gained traction with those simply trying to get fit and lose fat.

Body recomposition is more than just weight loss

Typically, people use a scale to gauge their progress when trying to lose weight.

If the number on the scale goes down, most dieters infer success.

However, the problem with using a scale as the only method to track your progress is that most scales don’t differentiate between fat loss and muscle loss, which is an important factor in measuring health.

Too much body fat has been linked to many health issues and may increase your risk of chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease.

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In contrast, having a healthy ratio of muscle mass to body fat can improve your health while decreasing your risk of the above diseases.

If done correctly, body recomposition changes the makeup of your body so that you have less fat and more muscle.

Interestingly, favoring body recomposition techniques over other weight loss methods may result in much slower weight loss or no weight loss due to the simultaneous gain in muscle.

However, contrary to popular belief, your muscle-to-fat ratio is the best indicator of overall health and fitness, not body weight.

Increasing muscle mass boosts your resting metabolic rate (RMR), meaning you will burn more calories at rest.

Summary: Rather than simply aiming for weight loss, body recomposition focuses on decreasing body fat while increasing muscle mass.

How does body recomposition work?

Since body recomposition is more a lifestyle than a diet, there is no set protocol.

Instead, those wanting to gain muscle while burning fat must change their diet and exercise regimens to facilitate body recomposition.

Rather than tracking weight on a scale, you should evaluate results by taking body circumference measurements and measuring body fat through methods such as skinfold calipers.

Body recomposition basics

With traditional weight loss methods, people may drastically cut calories and increase cardiovascular exercise to expend more energy.

Though this may result in weight loss, it will likely trim fat and muscle mass.

When following a body recomposition routine, it’s important to preserve and build muscle while losing fat simultaneously.

Modifications to diet and exercise must be made to reach this goal.

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While cardiovascular exercise is important for weight loss and overall health, strength training is necessary to alter body composition.

In addition, a diet high in protein facilitates fat loss while supporting muscle growth.

Body recomposition methods can vary depending on your ultimate goal.

For example, a lean bodybuilder who wants to put on more muscle and cut fat will have different dietary and exercise needs than a person with overweight or obesity looking to lose weight and increase muscle tone.

The good news is that body recomposition benefits everyone, regardless of how much fat you want to drop or muscle you want to gain.

Finding the right balance between diet and exercise is key to effective body recomposition.

Summary: Those wanting to alter their body composition should use methods to increase muscle mass and cut fat. Though anyone can use body recomposition principles, methods vary depending on your body composition goal.

How to lose fat

Excess body fat can negatively impact health in many ways, from increasing your risk of chronic diseases to affecting your emotional well-being and body image.

A calorie deficit must be created to lose body fat, which can be achieved either by consuming fewer calories or expending more energy.

However, cutting an extreme number of calories through very low-calorie dieting or engaging in hours of cardiovascular exercise doesn’t necessarily preserve muscle mass.

To lose fat while maintaining or building your physique, it’s best to moderately decrease your calorie intake while incorporating exercises that build muscle mass into your routine, such as strength training.

Nutrition and fat loss

Diet quality also matters when it comes to losing fat.

A protein-rich diet has been shown to reduce fat while preserving lean body mass.

A 2013 study of 88 adults with overweight found that a hypocaloric diet that contained 0.64 grams (g) of protein per pound (lb), or 1.4 g per kilogram (kg), of body weight was more effective in preserving muscle mass and reducing body fat than a diet providing 0.36 g per lb (0.8 g/kg) of protein.

Studies have shown that higher protein intake is necessary for athletes to lose fat while maintaining muscle.

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Another older review of six studies showed that athletes who lost the least muscle mass while cutting calories consumed the most protein — 1.14–1.3 g per lb (2.5–2.6 g/kg) of body weight.

For this reason, upping your protein intake to at least 0.64 g per lb (1.4 g/kg) of body weight may improve your body composition.

Other ways to reduce fat stores

Aside from hiking protein intake and increasing calorie expenditure, here are other tried-and-true methods for losing body fat:

Summary: Moderately decreasing your calorie intake, limiting processed foods, and increasing protein and fiber intake are the best ways to lose fat while preserving muscle mass.

How to gain muscle

While losing fat is important, maintaining or gaining muscle is key to changing your body composition.

Focusing only on diet and neglecting exercise habits may result in a loss of muscle mass.

Combining a healthy, lean body mass-promoting diet with a fitness routine that supports muscle growth and maintenance is vital.

The importance of protein

When you’re trying to build muscle, the right diet is critical.

A balanced diet rich in whole foods, such as fresh produce, healthy fats, complex carbohydrates, and protein, is best for everyone, regardless of fitness goals.

Individuals trying to reform their body composition may need to focus on increasing their protein intake. Studies have shown that a high-protein diet is necessary for promoting muscle growth.

For example, one review concluded that 0.73–1 g of protein per lb (1.6–2.2 g/kg) of body weight per day is best for maximizing muscle gain and strength.

Another review of 49 studies found that although participants consumed an average of 0.64 g of protein per lb (1.4 g/kg) of body weight per day, supplementing with 35 g of additional protein daily led to even further gains in lean body mass.

This review included people in resistance training programs.

The researchers concluded that consuming the recommended daily allowance of 0.36 g per lb (0.8 g/kg) “appears insufficient for those who aim to gain greater strength and fat-free mass with resistance training”.

Moreover, research from the International Society of Sports Nutrition suggests that even higher protein intakes of 1.1–1.4 g per lb (2.3–3.1 g/kg) per day may be needed to maintain lean body mass in resistance-trained people who are following low-calorie diets.

Suggested read: Can you lose weight with diet alone?

It’s recommended to distribute protein sources evenly throughout the day by consuming protein-rich foods like eggs, poultry, dairy products, and protein supplements every 3 to 4 hours.

Best exercises for gaining muscle

Along with a high protein, whole foods diet, incorporating strength training exercises into your routine is crucial.

Strength training involves using resistance exercises to build strength and muscle mass. An example of strength training is lifting weights.

If building muscle and reducing fat is your goal, experts recommend a weekly training protocol of at least two days of resistance training.

A review of 10 studies demonstrated that twice-weekly resistance training maximized muscle growth more than once weekly.

Combining strength training exercises like squats, bench presses, pushups, and other muscle-building exercises for 2 to 3 days per week alongside 1 to 2 days per week of interval training may be the perfect combination.

Studies show that combining high-intensity interval training with resistance training leads to fat loss and increased muscle mass and strength.

Summary: To build muscle, increase your protein intake to at least 0.73 g per lb (1.6 g/kg) of body weight per day and complete strength training exercises at least twice weekly.

Supplements to promote body recomposition

Research demonstrates that consuming whole, complete protein sources throughout the day is the best way to gain muscle mass.

However, it’s perfectly safe to use protein supplements to reach the recommended intake of 0.73 g per lb (1.6 g/kg) of body weight while undertaking resistance training.

For example, consuming high-quality protein sources — including protein supplements — up to 2 hours after working out stimulates muscle protein synthesis.

Protein sources that contain high amounts of essential amino acids (EAAs), especially the branched-chain amino acid leucine, are most effective at promoting muscle growth.

Whey protein is a type of protein powder rich in EAAs and makes a convenient post-workout protein source.

Plus, supplementing with whey protein has been shown to boost muscle growth when combined with resistance training programs.

Supplements, including whey, pea protein, casein, and hemp powders, are a practical way to increase your protein intake and can be especially helpful for those engaged in rigorous resistance training.

However, it’s entirely possible to consume the recommended amount of this nutrient through meals and snacks alone.

Adding protein sources, such as eggs, chicken, fish, nuts, nut butter, beans, and yogurt, to every meal and snack is the best way to meet your needs.

Summary: Protein supplements such as whey powder can boost protein intake and stimulate muscle growth. However, research shows that the most effective way to meet protein needs is to consume whole foods throughout the day.


Body recomposition stresses the importance of gaining muscle while losing fat, which may decrease your risk of chronic disease and boost metabolism.

Try increasing your protein intake to at least 0.73 g per lb (1.6 g/kg) of body weight daily and complete strength training at least twice weekly.

Body recomposition methods can be used by everyone, from elite athletes to those simply looking for a healthy way to get in shape.

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